Prostate cancer

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prostate cancer

The prostate is the walnut-sized gland that serves the reproductive function between the bladder and the penis. The prostate secretes the fluid in which sperm are protected and ensures the health of sperm. There are different types of prostate diseases that usually occur after the age of 40. The most common prostate diseases; prostate enlargement, prostate cancer and prostate inflammation.

It is a type of cancer that is seen in most men and can yield positive results from treatment if diagnosed early. It ranks first in cancer-related deaths. Since it does not cause symptoms at first, the probability of early diagnosis is very low. For this reason, it is important for your health to have regular prostate examinations after a certain age.

As some of the cells that make up the structure of the prostate progress differently, tumor structures form and cancer occurs. People with a family history of prostate disease are more likely to develop this cancer. In addition, people who smoke a lot of tobacco and are obese are also likely to get this cancer.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

Prostate cancer Since it progresses insidiously, symptoms usually begin to appear later in the course of the disease. The symptoms of the disease can also be seen in other prostate diseases and the symptoms are not characteristic. Prostate cancer symptoms can be listed as follows;

  • difficulty urinating
  • frequent urination
  • Presence of blood in urine or semen
  • erection problems
  • bone pains
  • Feeling of discomfort in the groin areas
  • Pain during ejaculation
  • unintentional weight loss

It may grow faster in some patients. Since prostate disease can spread to other parts of the body, especially the bones, severe pain may occur in the lower back, hips or legs.

After the enlargement of the prostate due to the tumor, if the prostate gland puts pressure on the bladder and urinary tract, symptoms such as frequent urination, intermittent and slow urination, and blood in the urine during urination, which is referred to as hematuria, are observed.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

It is not yet known exactly what causes this disease. Cancer begins to occur when prostate cells become abnormal. These mutated cells grow and divide faster than healthy cells. Even when healthy cells die, abnormal cells continue to live. When abnormal cells accumulate in the prostate, they form a qualified tumor that can invade nearby tissues. Some abnormal prostate cells can spread to other parts of the body.

Although the causes of prostate cancer are still not fully known, some risk factors increase a person's chances of developing the disease. These factors;

Age: The strongest risk factor for prostate cancer is age. The probability of this cancer occurring in men over 50 is higher than in men under 50. As a person ages, the likelihood of the disease occurring increases. It is estimated that of 80-year-old men are diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Family History: People who have had prostate cancer in their family relatives, such as their father, brother, grandfather or uncle, have a very high risk of developing this cancer.

Genetic: Some ethnic people are more likely to get prostate cancer. For example; Black people and Caribbean men are more likely to get prostate cancer than white men. Asian men are less likely to be arrested.

Some ethnic groups are more likely to get prostate cancer. For example, black African and Caribbean men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than white men. Asian men are also less likely to get this cancer.

Diagnostic Methods

Today, there is no method for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Advancing age and genetic predisposition are among the risk factors that have been demonstrated for a healthy man to develop prostate cancer. If these risk factors are observed, tests are performed for early diagnosis of the patient.

While men who do not have a family history of prostate cancer are recommended to have cancer screening after the age of 50, people with a previous family history of prostate cancer are recommended to have cancer screening beforehand. The methods used for screening are digital rectal examination (for the prostate) and blood test and PSA measurement.

PSA Test and Prostate Examination

It can be diagnosed early with the PSA (prostate specific antigen) test, which is checked with a blood sample. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is important to increase the possibility of treatment.

In addition to cancer, PSA may be elevated after benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate), prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate), sexual intercourse, biopsies, rectal prostate exams, urinary tract infections, urinary tract interventions (catheterization), and surgery. Therefore, high PSA does not mean cancer, and low levels may not be enough to rule out cancer.

Therefore, PSA testing can be supported by prostate examinations in cancer screening and diagnosis. Due to the results of these tests, patients with suspected prostate cancer may have some additional tests to diagnose cancer:

Multiparametric MRI

MRI is an imaging method that can support the diagnosis of patients with suspected cancer. Cancer cells and tissues have a different appearance than healthy tissue, with features such as increased cell density and blood supply. In this way they can be visualized using multiparameter MRI.

In addition, multiparametric MRI can detect whether the tumor has extended beyond the prostate capsule and possibly lymph node spasm. Additionally, these MRI images can be used as a guide when performing a prostate biopsy on patients.

Prostate Biopsy

Biopsy is the process of examining a piece of tissue or a cell taken from any part of the body under a microscope and subjecting it to various tests.

In prostate biopsy, samples are taken from different parts of the prostate. In a standard prostate biopsy, random sections are taken from the prostate with the help of a special device placed in the rectum under local anesthesia, and then, during pathological examination, it is checked whether there are cancer cells in these tissues.

As technology improves, new biopsy methods have been developed that increase diagnostic accuracy. Prostate biopsy is used to diagnose prostate cancer and determine whether the tumor is rapidly progressing and malignant.

Standard Prostate Biopsy

A prostate biopsy is performed from the rectum using a special ultrasound and automatic biopsy needle. Biopsy procedures performed in this way are usually performed under local anesthesia and do not require hospitalization.

During this procedure, a biopsy is taken from the desired area with ultrasound guidance. If the cause of high PSA cannot be determined, PSA continues to rise, or if the prostate biopsy is questionable, a repeat biopsy may be necessary.

MRI-Ultrasound Fusion Biopsy

In this diagnostic method, previously taken MRI images of the patient are transferred to the ultrasound device where the prostate biopsy is performed and the location of the tumor is determined. Therefore, unlike the random section in traditional biopsy, the biopsy is performed “on target” directly from the suspicious focus.

Since the exact location of a tumor or suspicious lesion can be found, it is sufficient to take fewer samples instead of taking many samples with this method. Fusion biopsy can be done in two ways. One of these is the transperineal method, which is performed by entering the skin of the perineal area. This method can be performed under general or local anesthesia. Another method is the transrectal method, which is performed by reaching through the rectum. This method can be performed under local anesthesia.

Risk factors

  • Age: Prostate cancer is proportional to aging. Average men and the old man are at risk.
  • Race: Prostate cancer is more common in black people. The reason for this has not yet been discovered. At the same time, the cancer seen in black people is malignant and quite advanced.
  • Obesity: Obese men are also at increased risk. In addition, obesity makes the treatment process of prostate cancer very difficult.
  • Family history: Men with a family history of prostate cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease. People with a family history of breast cancer are also at risk.
  • Other factors: A diet high in red meat and fatty foods and low in fruits and vegetables appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer.

Frequently Asked Questions About Prostate Cancer

1-Is it necessary to perform a prostate biopsy to diagnose the disease?

There is no definitive method to diagnose prostate cancer. After prostate examination and blood test, if one or both are suspected, a prostate biopsy should be performed.

2-What awaits the patient after prostate cancer surgery?

The most feared problem after prostate cancer surgery was urinary incontinence. However, if you are being operated on by a specialist team today, it is not possible to encounter this problem.

A second factor is whether the nerves that create an erection are preserved. If the surgical team can preserve the nerves that provide erection, erection can be restored within approximately 1 year with medical assistance.

3-Is There a Link Between Prostate Cancer and Prostate Enlargement?

There is no connection between prostate enlargement and prostate cancer. Prostate enlargement surgery is performed to completely solve the patient's urinary problems. Most patients who have prostate enlargement surgery have the same chance of developing cancer as other people.

4-Is Prostate Cancer Risky?

This disease is the primary risk of death in men. They are benign growths that occur in the prostate gland and do not usually spread to other organs.

5-How to understand that he has a prostate disease?

As the prostate enlarges and urine flow becomes difficult, patients may experience complaints such as difficulty urinating, inability to urinate completely, frequent urination at night, inability to urinate and relax, the feeling of urinating again, difficulty in starting to urinate, intermittent urination and urinary incontinence.

5-Can You Get Cancer at a Young Age?

The prostate is an important organ that affects a person's quality of life due to the diseases it can cause in all men. Prostate inflammation (prostatitis) related to prostate diseases can be seen in young people, while benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer can be seen in middle and older people.

6-Is Laparoscopy Surgery Risky?

General risks of laparoscopic surgery can be listed as temporary or long-term impotence, infertility, temporary or long-term urinary incontinence, and penis shortening. Although very rare, this surgery may cause intestinal damage.

7-Does Prostate Cancer Spread to the Body?

During the growth and spread of cancer cells, it can spread to nearby organs, the lymph system and other parts of the body. In addition, since it is a slowly progressing disease, the tumor may show a malignant character and spread to other organs or bones.

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